Simply put, in all but rare instances red Burgundy wine is always Pinot Noir and white Burgundy wine is Chardonnay. The wines are always 100% varietal as blending is not permitted. Other grapes like Gamay (red) and Aligote (white) are permitted in certain appellations and are labeled as such.
The limestone escarpment that gives the entire Burgundy region its unique terroir is called the Côte d'Or. For the ease of discussion the most important wines in Burgundy come from the areas called Côte de Beaune and Côte de Nuits.
The northern part of the Côte d'Or is called Côte de Nuits where the production is mainly devoted to red wines. The most important village names to remember are: Gevrey-Chambertin, Morey-St-Denis, Chambolle-Musigny, Vosne-Romanee, Flagey-Echezeaux, and Nuits-St-Georges. Many famous grand cru vineyards are located in these villages and their wines are much sought after.
The southern part of the Côte d'Or is called the Côte de Beaune. Two important village names are Pommard and Volnay in the Northern part of the sub-region, where the production balance of the wines leans toward red. As you move south, the famed white wines in communes like Meursault, Puligny-Montrachet, and Chassagne-Montrachet are found. In comparison to an average California Pinot Noir wine, lower-level village-named wines labeled “Bourgogne” are typically lighter and some would say leaner, usually having a bright garnet color with red fruit notes and ample acidity.
Local dishes such as Coq au Vin and Beouf Bourgignon pair well with red Burgundy. Other popular pairings are pork tenderloin, duck, and salmon. White Burgundies pair extremely well with seafood ranging from delicate to rich like Dover sole, scallops, and lobster. Dishes with cream sauces and local cheeses such as Chaumes, Brie, or Saint-Nectaire can also be quite exquisite.